This page exists to document progress of the Benchmarking and Assessment Working Group led by Kate Willett
Conferences and Workshops
Working Group Documents
Objectives and Timeline
Links to related projects
Members (as of 31/5/13):
Kate Willett (Met Office Hadley Centre, UK) (Chair)
Claude Williams (NCDC, USA)
Ian Jolliffe (Exeter Climate Systems, University of Exeter, UK)
Robert Lund (Department of Mathematical Sciences, Clemson University, USA)
Lisa Alexander (Climate Change Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Australia)
Stefan Brönniman (University of Bern, Switzerland)
Lucie A. Vincent (Climate Research Division, Environment Canada, Canada)Steve Easterbrook (Department of Computer Science, University of Toronto, Canada)
Victor Venema (Meteorologisches Institut, University of Bonn, Germany)
David Berry (National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, UK)
Rachel Warren (College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter, UK)
Giuseppina Lopardo (Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRiM), Italy)
Renate Auchmann (Oeschger Center for Climate Change Research & Institute of Geography, University of Bern, Switzerland)
Enric Aguilar (Centre for Climate Change, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Spain)
Matt Menne (NCDC, USA)
Colin Gallagher (Department of Mathematical Sciences, Clemson University, USA)
Zeke Hausfather (Berkeley Earth,USA)
Thordis Thorarinsdottir (Statistical Analysis, Pattern Recognition, and Image Analysis (SAMBA), Nowegian Computing Centre, Norway)
Robert Dunn (Met Office Hadley Centre, UK)
Peter Thorne (NERSC, Norway)
Blogsite for discussion of ideas/thoughts/work in progress:http://surftempbenchmarking.blogspot.com
This blogsite is open to all and constructive comments are welcome.
2014/10 A framework for benchmarking of homogenisation algorithm performance on the global scale - Paper now published
Benchmarking Workshop Agenda and Report
2013/05 Call for regional inhomogeneity info
2012/01 Mailing list on homogenisation of climate data
2012/01 New article: Benchmarking homogenization algorithm...benchmarking, climate variability, HOME, Homogenization, open-access publishing
2012/01 Benchmarking of USHCN
2011/11 Team Validation - thoughts from the Homogenisation...
2011/11 Team Corruption - Thoughts from the Homogenisation...
2011/11 Team Creation - thoughts from the Homgenisation Me...
2011/11 2011 Progress Report Now Published
2011/18 Team Validation
2011/07 Benchmark for real-world problems
2011/07 Another radiosonde benchmarking paper
2011/07 Generating inhomogeneous worlds
2011/07 Benchmarking temperature networks
2011/06 Homogenization seminar
2011/06 If I had but one analog I could create ...
2011/06 Big questions with which to test homogenisation al...
2011/03 Creating the Benchmark 'Truths'
2011/02 Assessing the Benchmarks
2011/02 Review paper references
2011/02 My first time using blog...
2011/01 Homogenization aspects that scare me
2011/01 Kate's Pseudo-worlds work
2011/01 Benchmarking and Assessment Open Comment - January...
RELATED BLOG POSTS:
2012/01 What distinguishes a benchmark?
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Benchmarking workshop (NCDC, July 2013)
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February 2015 - Kate Willett's presentation at the WCRP GRand Challenge on data for extremes workshop, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia: The ISTI: Land surface air temperature datasets for the 21st Century
December 2014 - Kate Willett's presentation at the University of Bern, Switzerland: The International Surface Temperature Initiative and Benchmarking for Homogenisation Algorithms
October 2014 - Kate Willett's presentation at Edinburgh University: The International Surface Temperature Initiative and Benchmarking for Homogenisation Algorithms
July 2014 - Kate Willett's presentation at the SAMSI/IMAGe workshop, NCAR, Boulder, CO, USA: The ISTI Benchmarks - their construction and characteristics
April 2014 - Enric Aguilar's presentation at EGU, Vienna, Austria:
January 2014 - Kate Willett's presentation at the Met Office, Exeter: Creating synthetic global surface temperature data for benchmark testing homogenisation algorithms and understanding uncertainty.
November 2013 - Kate Willett's presentation at the University of Reading Meteorology Department lunchtime seminars: The ISTI: Dragging the land surface temperature data kicking and screaming into the 21st Century
July 2013 - Kate Willett's presentation at the Benchmarking workshop, NCDC, USA: presentation
June 2013 - Kate Willett's presentation at the 12th International Meeting on Statistical Climatology (IMSC), Jeju, South Korea: An overview of benchmarking data homogenisation procedures for the ISTI
November 2012 - Kate Willett's presentation at the 5th ACRE Meeting, Toulouse, France: presentation
June 2012 - Peter Thorne's presentation at the Earth Temperature Network workshop, Edinburgh, UK: presentation
May 2012 - Kate Willett's NCDC Visit with Claude Williams and Robert Lund - presentation
- Kate Willett's Clemson University/Robert Lund visit - All things CLIMATE DATA and our maths and statistics headaches
December 2011 - Ian Jolliffe's 5th International Verification Methods Workshop, Melbourne, Australia:Benchmarking and Assessment (Verification) of Homogenisation Algorithms for the International Surface Temperature Initiative (ISTI), report.
October 2011 - Steve Easterbrook's WCRP Open Science Conference, Denver, CO, USA:Benchmarking and Assessment of Homogenisation Algorithms for the International Surface Temperature Initiative (ISTI). See Steve Easterbrook's blog.
- Kate Willett's COST HOME 7th Seminar for Homogenisation and Quality Control of Climate Databases, Budapest, Hungary: Creating a Global Benchmark Cycle for the International Surface Temperature Initiative.. Meeting Report (see blog too).
May 2011 - Kate Willett's presentation for MARCDATIII, Frascati, Italy, 2011: Is it good enough? Benchmarking homogenisation algorithms and cross-cutting with efforts for land observations
April 2011 - Kate Willett's Poster for EGU 2011: Robust Benchmarking of Homogenisation Algorithms for the Surface Temperature Initiative
February 2011 - Kate Willett's informal presentation at the National Climate Data Center (NC, USA): Devising a Benchmarking System for Homogenisation Methods of Climate Data-Products
Station List in ISTI format: 5Mb
Station list in GHCN format: 2.5Mb
Station list with pseudo-countries (filled in using nearest neighbour with country assignment) and land use classification based on ESA CCI-land cover (http://www.esa-landcover-cci.org/): 6.6Mb
Note 'nearest neighbour' is preferentially that with the same first two letters of the station ID (FIPS country code) if its within 1000km or else it is the nearest neighbour within 500km.
In some cases (32) countries are listed twice with slightly different names - these have been reconciled resulting in 219 unique countries.
THESE PSEUDO-COUNTRY LISTINGS ARE NOT OFFICIAL AND SHOULD ONLY BE USED FOR ERROR WORLD NETWORK CLASSIFICATION.
CLEAN WORLD DATA MASKED WITH REAL WORLD MISSING DATA:
A gzipped single ascii file version (stations in rows, months in columns Jan 1860 to Dec 2018) can be downloaded here: 38Mb
Tarballs of data in ISTI and GHCN format, split by first letter of station ID, are available from this directory (tar -xzf filename)
ISTI_BCNHCAAA_beta1_A GHCN_BCNHCAAA_beta1_A 2035 stations 23Mb, 9.1Mb
ISTI_BCNHCAAA_beta1_B GHCN_BCNHCAAA_beta1_B 671 stations 7.2Mb, 2.9Mb
ISTI_BCNHCAAA_beta1_C GHCN_BCNHCAAA_beta1_C 5314 stations 60Mb, 25Mb
ISTI_BCNHCAAA_beta1_D GHCN_BCNHCAAA_beta1_D 66 stations 722Kb, 292Kb
ISTI_BCNHCAAA_beta1_E GHCN_BCNHCAAA_beta1_E 219 stations 2.4Mb, 981Kb
ISTI_BCNHCAAA_beta1_F GHCN_BCNHCAAA_beta1_F 571 stations 6.4Mb, 2.7Mb
ISTI_BCNHCAAA_beta1_G GHCN_BCNHCAAA_beta1_G 1040 stations 12Mb, 4.8Mb
ISTI_BCNHCAAA_beta1_H GHCN_BCNHCAAA_beta1_H 70 stations 787Kb, 327Kb
ISTI_BCNHCAAA_beta1_I GHCN_BCNHCAAA_beta1_I 672 stations 7.2Mb, 3.0Mb
ISTI_BCNHCAAA_beta1_J GHCN_BCNHCAAA_beta1_J 330 stations 3.6Mb, 1.6Mb
ISTI_BCNHCAAA_beta1_K GHCN_BCNHCAAA_beta1_K 363 stations 4.0Mb, 1.7Mb
ISTI_BCNHCAAA_beta1_L GHCN_BCNHCAAA_beta1_L 128 stations 1.5Mb, 599Kb
ISTI_BCNHCAAA_beta1_M GHCN_BCNHCAAA_beta1_M 812 stations 8.8Mb, 3.6Mb
ISTI_BCNHCAAA_beta1_N GHCN_BCNHCAAA_beta1_N 701 stations 7.8Mb, 3.2Mb
ISTI_BCNHCAAA_beta1_P GHCN_BCNHCAAA_beta1_P 363 stations 4.0Mb, 1.6Mb
ISTI_BCNHCAAA_beta1_Q GHCN_BCNHCAAA_beta1_Q 1 stations 11Kb, 5.2Kb
ISTI_BCNHCAAA_beta1_R GHCN_BCNHCAAA_beta1_R 1301 stations 15Mb, 6.2Mb
ISTI_BCNHCAAA_beta1_S GHCN_BCNHCAAA_beta1_S 1446 stations 16Mb, 6.6Mb
ISTI_BCNHCAAA_beta1_T GHCN_BCNHCAAA_beta1_T 533 stations 5.8Mb, 2.4Mb
ISTI_BCNHCAAA_beta1_U GHCN_BCNHCAAA_beta1_U 15694 stations 175Mb, 74Mb
ISTI_BCNHCAAA_beta1_V GHCN_BCNHCAAA_beta1_V 113 stations 1.2Mb, 481Kb
ISTI_BCNHCAAA_beta1_W GHCN_BCNHCAAA_beta1_W 26 stations 283Kb, 113Kb
ISTI_BCNHCAAA_beta1_Y GHCN_BCNHCAAA_beta1_Y 9 stations 98Kb, 41Kb
ISTI_BCNHCAAA_beta1_Z GHCN_BCNHCAAA_beta1_Z 44 stations 483Kb, 196Kb
ISTI/Benchmarking Glossary - open for editing
White Paper 9 formed the basis for breakout group discussion at the Exeter meeting. Discussion outcomes are summarised in the final session.
Outline for the planned Homogenisation Review Paper to be written by the working group members
Terms of Reference agreed by the Benchmarking and Assessment Working Group (12/12/13)
Terms of Reference agreed by the Benchmarking and Assessment Working Group (15/6/11)
Working draft of Benchmarking and Assessment Paper describing the methodological background to benchmarking and assessment
October 2011 Progress Report of the Benchmarking and Assessment working group submitted to and accepted by the Steering Committee 10/11/2011
October 2012 (submitted Feb 2013) Progress Report of the Benchmarking and Assessment working group submitted to and accepted by the Steering Committee xx/xx/2013
October 2013 (submitted Nov 2013) Progress Report of the Benchmarking and Assessment working group submitted to and accepted by the Steering Committee xx/xx/2013
The Benchmarking working groups paper on benchmarking concepts:
Willett, K. M., C. N. Williams, I. Jolliffe, R. Lund, L. Alexander, S. Brönniman, L. A. Vincent, S. Easterbrook, V. Venema, D. Berry, R. E. Warren, G. Lopardo, R. Auchmann, E. Aguilar, M. Menne, C. Gallagher, Z. Hausfather, T. Thorarinsdottir, P. W. Thorne, 2014: A framework for benchmarking of homogenisation algorithm performance on the global scale, Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems, 3, 187-200, doi:10.5194/gi-3-187-2014.
Peter Thorne et al.'s overview of ISTI including the need for benchmarking:
Thorne, P., Willett, K. M., et al., 2011: Guiding the creation of a comprehensive surface temperature resource for 21st century climate science. BAMS, 92 (11), ES40-ES47, doi: 10.1175/2011BAMS3124.1
Kate Willett's work on 'pseudo-worlds' - a set of benchmarks for homogenisation of daily Tmax and Tmin - please leave comments on the blogsite thread
Example plots to be uploaded shortly
Holly Titchner et al's work on radiosonde error models for validating the homogenisation
Titchner, H. A., Thorne, P. W., McCarthy, M. P. et al. 2009: Critically Reassessing Tropospheric Temperature Trends from Radiosondes Using Realistic Validation Experiments. Journal Of Climate. 22, 465-485.
Claude William et al's work on homogenising USHCN with benchmarking of the methods:
Williams, C. N., Jr., M. J. Menne, and P. Thorne, 2012: Benchmarking the performance of pairwise homogenization of surface temperatures in the United States. J. Geophys. Res., 117, D05116 doi:10.1029/2011JD016761,
Victor Venema et al's work on benchmarking the COST HOME homogenisation algorithms:
Venema, V., O. Mestre, E. Aguilar, I. Auer, J.A. Guijarro, P. Domonkos, G. Vertacnik, T. Szentimrey, P. Stepanek, P. Zahradnicek, J. Viarre, G. Müller-Westermeier, M. Lakatos, C.N. Williams, M. Menne, R. Lindau, D. Rasol, E. Rustemeier, K. Kolokythas, T. Marinova, L. Andresen, F. Acquaotta, S. Fratianni, S. Cheval, M. Klancar, M. Brunetti, Ch. Gruber, M. Prohom Duran, T. Likso, P. Esteban, Th. Brandsma., 2012: Benchmarking homogenization algorithms for monthly data, Climate of the Past, 8, pp. 89-115, 2012.
Papers on known sources of inhomogeneity:
Harrison, R. G., 2010: Natural ventilation effects on temperature within Stevenson screens. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 136, 253-259, DOI:10.1002/qj.537.
Harrison, R. G., 2011: Lag-time effects on a naturally centilated large thermometer screen, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 137, 402-408, DOI:10.1002/qj.745.
Lopardo, G., F. Bertiglia, S. Curci, G. Roggero and A. Merlone, 2013: Comparative analysis of the influence of slar radiation screen ageing on temperature measurements by means of weather stations. International Journal of Climatology, DOI: 10.1002/joc.3765.
Papers on homogenisation:
Begert, M., Zenklusen, E., Haberli, C., et al., 2008: An automated procedure to detect discontinuities; performance assessment and application to a large European climate data set. Meteorologische Zeitschrift. 17, (5), 663-672.
DeGaetano, A. T., 2006: Attributes of several methods for detecting discontinuities in mean temperature series. Journal of Climate. 19 (5), 838-853.
Ducré-Robitaille, J.-F., Vincent, L. A. & Boulet, G., , 2003: Comparison of techniques for detection of discontinuities in temperature series. International Journal of Climatology, 23, 1087-1101.
Easterling, D. R. & Peterson, T. C., 1995: The effect of artificial discontinuities on recent trends in minimum and maximum temperatures. International Minimax Workshop on Asymmetric Change of Daily Temperature Range, SEP 27-30, 1993 COLLEGE PK, MD. Atmospheric Research. 37, 19-26.
Menne, M. J. & Williams, C. N., 2005: Detection of undocumented changepoints using multiple test statistics and composite reference series. Journal Of Climate. 18, 4271-4286.
Peterson, T. C., Easterling, D. R., Karl, T. R., et al., 1998: Homogeneity adjustments of in situ atmospheric climate data: A review. International Journal Of Climatology. 18, 1493-1517.
Trewin, B., 2010: Exposure, instrumentation, and observing practice effects on land temperature measurements. WIREs Climate Change. 1. 490-505.
Vincent, L.A., 1998: A technique for the identification of inhomogeneities in Canadian temperature series. Journal of Climate, 11, 1094-1104.
Wang, X. L., Wen, Q. H., and Wu, Y., 2007: Penalized Maximal t Test for Detecting Undocumented Mean Change in Climate Data Series. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology. 46, 916-931. DOI:10.1175/JAM2504.
Wang, X. L., 2008a: Accounting for autocorrelation in detecting mean-shifts in climate data series using the penalized maximal t or F test. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology. 47, 2423–2444. DOI: 10.1175/2008JAMC1741.1
Wang, X. L., 2008b: Penalized maximal F test for detecting undocumented mean-shift without trend change. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 25, 368-384. DOI:10.1175/2007/JTECHA982.1.
Wang, X. L., Chen, H., Wu, Y. et al., 2010: New techniques for detection and adjustment of shifts in daily precipitation data series. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology. (accepted)
Links to Related Projects:www.homogenisation.org - website for the COST HOME action on homogenisation
Last modified by Kate Willett: Jul 19th 2011